Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat,

neuralgia or maybe

Eagle Syndrome?

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eagle syndrome

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What diagnostic scan would show Eagles?

So far, thanks to the content on this website, we have been able to point the right path to about 110-115 people who have been struggling with undiagnosed Eagle Syndrome disease for a long time. Unfortunately, several people remain excluded from life and work or university education as a result of the disease, and the prognosis of physicians is not very optimistic for all of them.

In general, the condition is associated with compression of the elongated styloid process on the aforementioned cranial nerves. In addition, there may be symptoms caused by compression of styloid process on the carotid vessels. Pressure on the internal carotid artery can lead to pain radiating along the course of this artery, while pressure on the external carotid artery causes facial pain. Compression-induced restriction of blood flow in the internal carotid artery can cause neurological disorders ranging from nausea and fainting to aphasia, visual and circulatory disturbances and headaches (often mistaken for as migraines). In some cases, compression of the internal jugular vein may also occur, leading to increased intracranial pressure. Compression on the glossopharyngeal nerve can cause pain in the oral area. Compression on the vagus nerve can lead to heart disorders as well as pain and disorders in other parts of the body. Irritation of sympathetic plexuses can cause dizziness. Disorders of the accessory or phrenic nerve, the cervical plexus and others can be evident in shoulder and arm pain. The sensation of toothache may be only one of many, usually the initial symptom of the disease.


Eagle Syndrome does not necessarily involve toothache – it can be tingling and numbness in the cheek(s), pain in the face, jaw, ear and head, neuralgic pain, occipital numbness of the neck and shoulders, laryngeal and pharyngeal pain, pain at the base of the tongue, foreign body sensation. In the advanced stage, problems with swallowing and moving the neck and hand, “flashes” in the eye and visual disturbances, hypersensitivity, anxiety and a feeling of tension and stabbing in the chest, pain in the cervical spine, fainting especially when bending over, etc. (can be confused with spinal dysfunction). The condition is often accompanied by tremendous tension in the skeletal muscles (misdiagnosed as neurosis or tetany, for example).


Medical sources distinguish among other varieties in Eagle Syndrome: – classical /neuralgic/, – vascular /arteliar/. Vascular variety, does not exclude the neuralgic nature of this condition. Why has no one so far described the variety – dental, – spinal,  venous (?) – there are many such characteristic cases /useful discussion can be found => here/. Due to the fact that for the suffering patient, this is, not so important – I do not elaborate on this topic, especially as it is in vain to find a physician who will make a diagnosis of the disease in writing, along with its detailed variety. Eagle Syndrome disease, as the name indicates, is a group of clinical symptoms. For the very inquisitive - various neurovascular variants of the disease are presented => here.

The styloid process projects from the inferior part of the petrous temporal bone and offers attachment to the stylohyoid ligament and the stylohyoid, stylopharyngeus, and styloglossus muscles.

Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat, neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome
Kiefergelenk, Styloidfortsatz, Ligamentum stylohyoideum und stylomandibulare
Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat, neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome
ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament:

 Select a country



n 1872 r., dr. Josef Weinlechner reported a case of elongated styloid process and its surgical removal which eradicated the symptoms
Eagle syndrome, styloid process

Don’t trust physicians from a young age (part 8) – a young boy already in his childhood from the age of 11, felt, among others, instability and other disorders in the head and neck line, pulsations in his ears, dizziness. At age 22, after years of misdiagnosis and therapy, he was excluded from life and normal functioning. Thanks to his own perseverance and Dr. Google – he finally found the desired diagnosis.


Currently after two surgeries. Recovery after so many years, is not easy. Nevertheless, there is finally some hope!

styloid process surgery
Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat,
neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome?
Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat,
neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome?

A very persistent patient – she traveled the country far and wide in search of a surgeon who would perform the surgery. After an unsuccessful surgery from an internal approach, she found help and understanding as far as 500 kilometers away. In total, she traveled, in a straight line, more than 2,500 kilometers, before it was possible to remove the entire styloid process from an external approach . We wish her lots of health! 

Don’t trust the professors (part 11) – the patient had a CT scan after the surgery /image below/, which showed that the styloid processes were not excised, but only minimally shortened. For a commercial operation /extra paid/ from an external access at a well-known professor, this is more than a poor result.


A patient in very poor condition, with disorders of pharynx and neck, upper limbs, vagus nerve and whole body, dizziness and headaches with the prospect that any possible subsequent surgery can only worsen the symptoms and condition. In addition, scarring, adhesions and fibrosis of the cranial nerves aggravate the ailments /similar situations are sadly more/.

styloid process surgery
styloid process surgery

Styloid processes in Eagle Syndrome – each case is different.


Left – one of the shorter operated symptomatic styloid processes with a length of 3.20 cm. The patient had been complaining for many years of jawbone and jaw pain, as well as headaches diagnosed by her as migraine pains. In recent months, the patient noted deterioration of vision in one eye (ophthalmologist without objections). The surgery lasted about 1 hour. The styloid processes directly touched the carotid artery with their tip. Shortly after the surgery, generally all complaints including weakening of vision were alleviation, which is a great result although not often seen.


Middle – styloid processes “cemented” with an ossified stylohyoid ligament (7 cm total). A young woman with numerous complaints viewed her archived CT scan. A few months later, the “stranger” seen on her CT scan ended up on the site as a disease pattern. We wish her a lot of health!


Right – a fractured styloid processes of 4.50 cm. 10 years of headaches, earaches and “hell” in the patient’s mouth. As the styloid processes were entangled with numerous vascular and nerve structures, the surgery lasted more than 4 hours. After the operation, the patient’s shoulder and arm pains alleviated. The rest of complaints, so far, unfortunately persist and are difficult as to further prognosis. We wish an improvement in health and alleviation of the ailments as soon as possible.

a fractured styloid process
elongated styloid process
eagle syndrome
styloid processes with an ossified stylohyoid ligament
zespol eaglea

Don’t trust physicians from a young age (part 6) – Eagle’s youngest case. The boy developed the disease at the age of 16. He visited approximately 60 physicians. Choking, additionally with symptoms of drooling and a sense of a foreign body in his throat, he was ridiculed by the staff of one of hospitals. Poisoned by physicians with psychotropics and antibiotics, he was referred for psychiatric treatment. After 6 years of suffering, Eagle Syndrome disease was diagnosed by a young dentist in a neighborhood office. Now qualified for surgery with hopes of a normal life.

Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat, neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome
Eagle Syndrome stylohyoid ligament
 dr Watt Eaglea Eagle syndrome
Eagle syndrome, styloid process, spine
Eagle syndrome, styloid process
Eagle syndrome, styloid process


styloid process


Elongated styloid processes and jugular vein disorders – we are looking for such bright physicians and radiologists (!) Also specialists who use modern elastography instead of traditional ultrasound of the neck, as well as laboratories that perform digital motion X-ray (digital motion X-ray).

Eagle syndrome, styloid process
eagle syndrome
Eagle syndrome, styloid process
CBCT scan styloid process
Eagle syndrome, styloid process x ray

Don’t trust […] [censored] (!) (part 4) – A man with a condition diagnosed and described on a CT scan, waited many months for surgery. After the operation, he was told by physicians that the styloid processes were not excised because they were not there, and the physician who described the condition quoted “he will always see something on CT.” The suffering patient, with the indifference of hospital staff, analyzed his X-ray panoramic radiograph and CT scan himself – the radiological image does not lie /image on the left/. Patient with increasing complaints discharged from the hospital. The patient’s clinical condition was falsified in the discharge.


Man under severe condition shortly underwent surgery at CITO in another hospital  /image taken after the surgery – on the right/. Re-operation saved the patient’s life – one of the styloid processes during the first surgery, not only was not excised, but in addition was broken. In addition, the patient completely unnecessarily lost his tonsils as a result of the first surgery.

Most physicians will tell you that pressure pain in the neck, cannot result in pain symptoms to other body parts, and certainly not to the lower extremities. This video (1-27 seconds) explains a lot /don't do it!/. One patient even called it “neuralgia” of the leg. After neck surgery, the neuralgia in her leg alleviated. Many patients, including the author of this website, experienced what they called “flutters” throughout the body. After the surgery, the discomfort was most often reduced, although in many cases it did not go away completely.  


The above symptoms, in some cases, due to their persistent nature, do not necessarily alleviate entirely after surgery. Rehabilitation with a physiotherapist, particularly neuromobilizations performed by a wise osteopath, can help. Unfortunately, results are not always possible, and certainly improvement will not always be immediate.


Some of the symptoms and my observations were confirmed after many years in this => publication. My many years of observation of hand and shoulder ailments in patients with Eagle Syndrome, as described in this => material.

ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament
Eagle Syndrome
surgery eagle syndrome
surgery Eagle syndrome, styloid process

The most joyful moment – another person diagnosed thanks to information on this website finds a happy ending. Both styloid processes about 6 cm in length including one broken (paradoxically less painful). Congratulations to the surgeon ! The brave patient received a 3D print of the styloid processes as a souvenir. Six months later, the surgery on the other side of the patient took place, where the elongated styloid processes were pressing on the spine, among others.

a fractured styloid process Eagle syndrome

Diagram of the entire system – including the temporomandibular joint, styloid processes, stylohyoid ligament, stylomandibular ligament, hyoid bone.

Left – styloid processes on the background of cervical spine. Foramen arcuale – an opening in the posterior vertebral arch of the first cervical vertebra through which the vertebral artery passes. Abnormalities in this area can result in a reduced amount of blood reaching the brain, inner ear or brainstem. They can be the cause of complaints of pain and dizziness. Right – discussion of elongated styloid processes and possible associated spinal instability at C0, C1, C2 levels.

St. Charbel Makhluof  Eagle syndrome
eagle syndrome
eagle syndrome

Don’t trust radiologists (part 3) – an observant patient who decided to independently verify the knowledge and vision of the aforementioned radiologist on the CBCT performed /without commentary/ (the patient recovered the money for the misdiagnosis).


Trust Only Yourself (part 7) – a young woman was diagnosed with no effect for 9 years. The patient was suspected of having back problems, multiple sclerosis and upper thoracic syndrome. The patient complained of dizziness and headaches, nausea, jaw pain, orbital pain, noises and crackles in her head and ears, pain radiating to her neck, pain and swelling in her shoulder and arm.



After years of unsuccessful diagnoses, she herself decided to take a close look at her shoulder CT scan /effect below/. In addition, angio-CT showed further bilateral hypertrophy of the styloid processes and kinking of the carotid artery. Currently, he has already undergone his first surgery. Some of the symptoms have disappeared, but the disease is still giving a hard time. The patient still has one more surgery ahead. We wish her good health!

Don’t trust anyone (part 10) – how many styloid processes do you see in the following CT scan of one of the patients? The radiologist and three independently otolaryngologists with the rank of MD who reviewed the CT scan saw none. The patient was recommended another “stronger” CT scan. For what purpose?


There are many more similar cases /with a little willingness, often an ENT specialist in a small center can see more than a physician in a professorial clinic/.

Don’t trust radiologists and physicians (part 2) – magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to available medical knowledge, is not considered an appropriate test for Eagle Syndrome. Nevertheless, the physician (neurologist) insisted and requested such an examination for evaluation of styloid processes for one of the patients /medical error in itself/. The radiologist describing the examination – found nothing. However, the patient found himself /shown below/.


The neurologist scoffed at the patient’s observations and refused further diagnostic CT. A CBCT performed at another clinic, confirmed the patient’s diagnosis and concerns. The patient is already after surgery.

MRI Eagle Syndrome
eagle syndrome
CBCT Scan Eagle Syndrome

Eagle Syndrome of arterial nature /which also does not exclude the neuralgic nature of the disease/ – CT scan taken after the patient’s first surgery. Green arrow – area after the removal of the left styloid processes. Red arrows – styloid processes for subsequent surgery, on the right patient’s side. The angio-CT performed showed that the external carotid artery appears compressed and jammed between the styloid process and C1 of the cervical spine. Currently, the patient has already undergone a second surgery. We wish him good health and perseverance.

Don’t trust radiologists and physicians (part 9) – elongated both styloid processes perfectly visible on CT scan of sinuses. Traditionally – radiologist, maxillofacial surgeon or neurologist – knew nothing, nowhere. The patient was recommended and underwent surgical removal of molar teeth /with no effect/. Then subjected to harmful neurological treatment. Finally poisoned by a neurologist with injections and excess pyridoxine (Vit. B6) – symptoms of peripheral nervous system disorder. The patient received a reliable CT description and a correct diagnosis of Eagle Syndrome at one teleradiology.

Trust no one (part 5) – when you lose faith in physicians and radiologists. One of the most severe cases of the disorder. The patient viewed his CT scan himself in the free app /30-day free trial/. In the immediate vicinity of the elongated styloid processes, there was visible compression and compromised carotid vessels (!) /image on the right/. The patient underwent surgery in serious condition, which saved the man’s life, with little chance of future recovery. As a result of his long-term disease, the patient has a damaged /fibrotic/ vagus nerve, among others. According to available medical knowledge, cranial nerve fibrosis is an irreversible lesion – the knowledge of neurologists and other physicians on this subject is nil (as many patients have repeatedly found out).

Don’t trust radiologists and physicians (part 1) – a case /one of many/ when the patient knows better than the physician. A boy had suffered from severe craniofacial and jaw pain. He was unsuccessfully diagnosed by the owner and staff of a dental clinic that runs courses for dentists on temporomandibular joint disorders and, paradoxically, precisely on Eagle Syndrome. Finally, the patient decided, to see his X-ray panoramic radiograph and CT scan himself. Everything became clear (!) Below, bilateral styloid processes invading the patient’s mandibular angles on CBCT. Currently after surgery – although no surgery in this situation, will bring him back to full health. /I don’t know how this is possible, sometimes words are missing/.

St. Charbel Makhluof of Lebanon (1828-1898) – Maronite monk, saint of the Catholic Church, patron saint of Eagle Syndrome patients and the best specialist in the condition.


When physicians of many specialized fields in the country’s largest private medical group were blind and helpless, and in time began to ridicule my illness, it was he who, in my sleep gave me the guidance and strength to find the cause of my ailments on my own and save my life  (I didn’t know him then. I only found out who he was shortly before the surgery).



A few years later, also on his “initiative” this website was created – thanks to which it was possible to save the health of many other people /in several cases also lives /.

3D CBCT diagnostics – we have the 21st century, high-technology, and most patients suffer and spend years searching for a diagnosis of their ailments. CT is the gold standard for diagnosing Eagle Syndrome. The interesting => case.


The human factor is still the most fallible and imperfect. It is mainly the willingness to help, the lack of empathy and the relegation on the part of medical personnel that fails. Fortunately, there are some great physicians and physical therapists who approach Eagle Syndrome patients with kindness and understanding.

styloid process

Styloid processes in the background of ear structure – many patients complain of crackling, a feeling of fullness and complaints of pain in the ear. In some cases, especially with very voluminous styloid processes, there is ringing in the ears, tinnitus or hearing sensitivity. Ear pain causes are discussed => here

Enlarged styloid processes on X-ray panoramic radiograph – few dentists pay attention to an elongated styloid process. You don’t have to be a roadsman or forester to see a tree on the road ! A man after 2 years of ailments, suffering and going door-to-door for physicians herself became the best radiologist ever. X-ray panoramic radiograph is completely unknown to ENT and neurologists – if you show them the styloid processes on X-ray, you will most likely cause consternation to the physician. One patient even received a written opinion from a well-known ENT specialist during an online consultation that an elongated styloid processes on X-ray is not…a styloid process and there is no indication on X-ray for the diagnosis of Eagle Syndrome.


Radiological examples of the condition on X-ray panoramic radiograph can be found => here. About the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) image format => here

St. Charbel Makhluof
Hyoid bone
a fractured styloid process

One of the most optimistically concluded cases – a young woman complained of constant right ear pain and tonsil pain, sore throat making it impossible to eat and drink, sudden piercing pain in her jaw and teeth, and a feeling of falling into an abyss. An X-ray panoramic radiograph and CT scan, performed, showed an elongated styloid process 6 cm in length on the right side. The patient was diagnosed quite quickly and, thanks to the information on this website, underwent surgery just as quickly. With a small surgical incision, it was possible to remove the entire styloid process at the base of a skull /dashed line shows the course of facial nerve before the surgery/. The postoperative scar, almost invisible just after the removal of sutures. The patient, actually healthy immediately after the surgery, which is a wonderful (!) although extremely rare, such a spectacular result – which, as the author of this website and a person experienced with the disease, I really envy, because in my case everything went wrong.

Special Case 3 – ossified /calcified / in fragment stylohyoid ligament. A young woman after 2 years of ailments, suffering and going door-to-door for physicians herself became the best 3D radiologist ever ! After that, she continued to bounce around the indifference of physicians for many more months. She finally found a board-certified radiologist who made the correct diagnosis and a surgeon who undertook the surgery. A small ossification visible on the CT scan pressed on one of the cranial nerves, excluding the girl from a normal life. The girl successfully helped to make Eagle’s 3D image many more people for whom physicians were more than helpless!                   

An essentially asymptomatic case – the patient found out that he had an elongated styloid process and a calcified stylohyoid ligament on the occasion of a CT description of salivary glands and an X-ray panoramic radiograph. After consultation with a specialist, for possible follow-up in future years.


Special Case 2 – fractured styloid processes at the base of skull /high risk of displacement and arterial dissection/. Local physicians underestimated the case. The patient, among others, thanks to this website, quickly found a great physician and surgical team (high appreciation ). She is recovering quickly and, most importantly, without any threat to her life.

Nervus vagus  Eagle Syndrome

Left, 3D CT visualization – an elongated styloid processes (black arrow) and a calcified /ostehyoid ligament (blue arrow), respectively. An angio-CT scan showed bilateral stenosis and dissection of the patient’s carotid arteries.


Right, classic X-ray – elongated styloid processes (white arrowhead) and ossified stylohyoid ligament (white arrow).

a fractured styloid process

Special Case 1 – fractured styloid processes. From my private observation, it appears that a fractured styloid processes affects about 9% of Eagle Syndrome cases /5 cases in a statistical sample of 55 patients/. The fracture can occur as a result of: trauma, epileptic attack, straining of the stylohyoid ligament, e.g., with great violent physical exertion, or even from sneezing. There is a known case of stylohyoid processes fracture as a result of ENT examination, also during tonsillectomy surgery, and rupture of ossified /calcified/ stylohyoid ligament during gym exercise.

CT scan (left) – a total diagnostic disaster for one of the patients. Neither the radiologist nor the other specialists for several months: they could not see anything, anywhere (!) The patient kept bouncing back from the physicians’ blandness. Finally, in critical condition saved by urgent surgery. Further prognosis highly uncertain. MR (right) – is not considered an examination specific to Eagle Syndrome /styloid processes easily confused with stylohyoid ligament/ – nevertheless there are known cases of a good specialist diagnosing the disease on the basis of MRI. The length of styloid processes given below is only approximate /taken without access to a diagnostic monitor/.

CBCT-Scan Eagle Syndrome
styloid process

What might the pain look like in this situation? – imagine the pain during root canal treatment of a tooth without any anesthesia lasting up to 20-24 hours a day and so for 7 days a week and on and on indefinitely for many months and years. Record-breakers have endured as long as 10-15 years and more (!) The cause of disease was most often apparent at the first diagnosis.


One patient, in such a situation, was told in the hospital: young, pretty, will endure – let her come next year. She did not endure.

One patient in this situation was recommended: lavage with Lugol’s fluid /no comment/

Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat,
neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome?

Hyoid bone – the only human bone that is not connected to the rest of our skeletal system. It protects the larynx and is held in place by the stylohyoid ligament attached to the styloid processes of the temporal bone. Hyoid bone syndrome occurs when the greater horns become elongated or thickened so that the hyoid bone loses some of its movement and begins to compress some of the same nerves that irritate the elongated styloid processes or the calcified stylohyoid ligament. The hyoid bone can also become “trapped” by calcified stylohyoid ligaments. Under normal conditions, it moves freely up and down and a little sideways when we swallow, talk, laugh, cough, sneeze, breathe, etc. When it loses the ability to move as necessary, pain can occur.

Nouhad Al-Chami from Lebanon – who underwent surgery in critical condition in 1993 by St. Charbel (read: Sharbel) as a result of bilateral arterial compression. Her scars are identical to those for modern “eagle” surgeries. Is it a coincidence? It kind of makes you think, I’m not claiming anything. You’ll find her story in many places on the Internet, including here


St. Charbel - The Lebanese saint who unites Christians and Muslims. St. Charbel is known in Lebanon for the miraculous healings to seek his intercession – both Christians and Muslims. St. Charbel has no geographic or confessional limits.

Anatomy revisited – many physicians do not believe in the existence or underestimate the disease. Eagle Syndrome has gained the nickname of suicide disease. /The interesting case =>


Many patients are wondering – can the styloid processes grow back after surgery? I asked such an identical question to a well-known professor. He answered without conviction – NO. The example of several people /mainly abroad/ shows that the styloid process can grow back. According to another surgeon, to prevent this, the styloid process should be shortened below the “ossification zone” preferably at the base of a skull.

Accessory nerve – many Eagle Syndrome patients complain of arm and shoulder pain. Also, disorders of the phrenic nerve, cervical plexus and others can cause complaints, hand and shoulder pain.

Diagram: compression of styloid processes on cranial nerves and arteries. Conscious physicians and physiotherapists do not recommend physiotherapy before surgery in this situation.

Surgery with internal approach /illustrative photo/ – usually requires removal of the tonsils. Undiagnosed pain in the teeth, jaw and mandible is often the first symptom of the disease, although this is not the rule. Surgery from an internal access is considered low effective compared to surgery from external access.

sore throat,
Eagle Syndrome

Styloid /from the Greek στυλος (stylos): a pillar or stylus for writing/. The styloid process originates as a part of Reichert's cartilage, which forms from the second pharyngeal arch during embryological development.

kinking  Eagle Syndrome
elongated styloid processes  / ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament
Enlarged styloid processes  X-ray
glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve – most commonly affected by Eagle Syndrome

Glossopharyngeal nerve – one physician (MD) said to a patient quote “what do you mean, a damaged glossopharyngeal nerve does not…hurt” – as if to say […] /censored/           

glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve – most commonly affected by Eagle Syndrome

 vagus nerve by Eagle Syndrome

Software to convert plain CT to 3D CT (e.g. or and Effect below – both styloid processes and vascular anomalies in the neck are perfectly visible. The patient reported sore throat. What do you think, did any radiologist and physician pay attention to the styloid processes? …NO

Vagus nerve – “wanders” throughout the body and controls the most important human organs. Many patients complain of unexplained pressure in the chest and visceral disorders.

Negligible number of radiologists can describe styloid processes on spinal X-ray

Styloid processes visible on cervical spine X-ray

/rarely so clear on X-ray/


Enlarged styloid processes on X-ray
elongated styloid processes  / ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament

In many countries around the world, there is no physician who is ready to perform the surgery, and patients, if they are able at all, seek help abroad. The knowledge of Eagle's disease in France appears to be the lowest in Europe. Isn't it a paradox that French-speaking patients sometimes they finally find understanding and help in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). High awareness of the disease is surprisingly evident among Russian dentists. The disease has its own dedicated section on the website of the Russian Dental Association. Eagle Syndrome surgery in the United Kingdom with top specialists costs about £18,000. In the United States, it’s a price in the $10,000-20,000 range (I’ve seen a bill for not the best surgery and hospital stay as high as $48,000). Likewise, they don’t offer a 100% guarantee of success either. Some sources report that steroid treatment of the disease can be used. The effect, according to the sources, is short-lived, and there are no examples of permanent successful treatment with this method. Also in my case, none of the physicians could indicate whether steroid treatment makes any sense at all. Several patients have opted for neurological blocks – their experiences in this regard have been traumatic, including a stay in the ED. Several have been poisoned by large doses of antibiotics, psychotropics or excess B vitamins (pyridoxine B6 in excess has neurotoxic effects).

In 1872 r., dr. Josef Weinlechner (Vienna) reported a case of elongated styloid process and its surgical removal which eradicated the symptoms

Josef Weinlechner  "Doctor of Surgery" "Professor of Surgery"


photo: University Medical Center Arch

Eagle Syndrome dr Watt Eagle

Dr Eagle has diagnosed and described the condition in more than 200 patients over 20 years.  At Duke, Eagle served as the first chief of the ENT division from 1930-1949.


In order to confirm the disorder visible on X-ray, most often a CT scan is requested by the physician for evaluation of styloid processes /easy to say, more difficult to perform correctly – records had 6-15 failed CT, MRI and X-ray each (!)/. From patient experience, about 2/3 of CTs were either misdirected or poorly performed or described. Confusion of styloid processes with mastoid, condylar processes is unfortunately common. Incorrect CT description you can try to verify in => Teleradiology.

If you have symptoms characteristic of the disease, you notice long styloid processes on your X-ray, and the physician said he doesn’t…see anything there, but still doesn’t know what’s wrong with you, you suffer for months – change the physician and don’t give up /almost every patient has gone through such a situation (!)/


1)  One patient reported to the hospital’s oral surgery with severe pain. A young physician after graduation diagnosed Eagle Syndrome (good job). He consulted with senior colleagues, who looked, nodded and sent the patient home without diagnosis. The girl continued to suffer for many more months before she found this website and finally a physician who had the will to help in the first place; 2)  Another patient with an already diagnosed condition (styloid processes 6 cm long) reported for surgery at one of the well-known private ENT clinics (known for treating celebrities). The qualifying surgeon laughed at our patient and the disease, and recommended tonsil lavage. Three weeks later, the patient was fortunately after surgery at another clinic; 3)  Another patient was “treated” for several months with a well-known maxillofacial surgeon. At the last visit, the patient’s complaints were laughed at and he was actually asked out of the office. A few months later, the patient filed a complaint. Today, our heroic surgeon, thanks to the knowledge gained from the patient’s example… performs Eagle operations at one of the medical institutes; 4)  The patient had a CT scan done at the hospital, as a result of which she was referred for urgent Eagle Syndrome surgery the very next day. Just before the operation, the surgeon informed the stunned patient that the surgery would not be performed because there was nothing to operate on. The patient insisted, and was in pain – dozens of minutes later, the same surgeon removed a familiar “fang” from under the patient’s cheek, and the pain soon abated; 5)  A young girl with Eagle’s ailment was treated for 3 years with increasing doses of drugs and antibiotics /she underwent treatments with 16 antibiotics (!)/. As a result of this, the girl’s body is devastated not only by the disease /finally diagnosed/ but also by drug “treatment”; 6)  The patient has suffered from undiagnosed facial skeleton pain for 12 years. She visited a bunch of prominent physicians with no results. Finally, she came across this website. All it took was a quick look at the X-ray panoramic radiograph and everything became clear. Today, after the surgery, she feels well and finally without horrible pain; 7)  The girl had been suffering from pain in the tonsil and throat area for a year especially when speaking. It turned out that the styloid processes were broken at the base of skull and impinged on the surrounding vessels. Physicians downplayed the matter. Today, after the surgery, she feels no discomfort; 8)  A young woman had been suffering from bilateral jaw and craniofacial complaints for years. Completely by accident, she came across this website. It turned out that both styloid processes are about 6 cm in length including one that is broken. Now, she is after the first surgical procedure; 9)  One of the patients received an image of the removed styloid processes from her surgeon after the surgery. The same image was received by another…two other patients; 10)  A man perfectly aware that he was suffering from Eagle Syndrome was trivialized and ignored at otolaryngology, and the local professors “didn’t see anything, anywhere.” He also had a CT scan of his neck at the most modern radiology in his country – the radiologist also “didn’t see anything, anywhere.” The patient showed the physicians a video of his CT scan with the condition imaged in 3D. He heard – who and how did it perform and view it? I did it myself – in a free app on my home PC. Currently after successful surgery; 11)  One other surgeon assured several patients that he had cut out the styloid processes properly during the procedure. The patients continued to complain of tremendous discomfort. In fact, it turned out that the styloid processes were not excised at all or minimally, and the patients were forced to undergo another surgery (no comment).



Histories like the above, I got to know more than – a hundred. Each equally painful and shocking. One patient had all her teeth removed over a period of several years before it was realized that the teeth were not the cause of her ailment. An identical history of a young woman happened in Germany recently. Yet another with a broken styloid processes was “treated” by an ENT surgeon well aware of what Eagle Syndrome is… with ear drops. The woman was finally properly directed as to treatment by another ENT surgeon, and then to the maxillofacial surgery department of one of the hospitals, where she was urgently referred to otolaryngology for surgery. Unfortunately, she did not make it. She died in excruciating suffering with the helplessness of those closest to her /in 2020 hospital, a patient with arterial dissection often had less chance of being understood and admitted to the hospital than a patient with Covid/. 



Physicians’ indolence and indifference, lack of knowledge, holistic perspective and pushing is enormous. There is also little professional, authoritative literature on the subject. The available literature is basically a translation and citation of several of the same sources with errors included. In the available source materials, it is possible to read that the symptoms of disease are dysphagia and salivation. Out of the dozens of Eagle Syndrome patients I have met, only a part had dysphagia and salivation. Thus, diagnosis based on these symptoms or lack thereof completely fails. Physicians, especially neurologists, often make a diagnosis on this very basis and look for the disease or lack thereof by force on the basis of notorious salivation, because that’s what they mostly read on the Internet /Eagle syndrome is not rabies/. In turn, the ENTs’ favorite symptom in the form of sore throat – also does not apply to most cases. Medical sources based on the interpretation of studies from a century ago suggest that the disease is a consequence of excision of tonsils (tonsillectomy). In reality, only a negligible proportion of patients have had their tonsils removed in the past. There is a complete lack of specialists who can treat the effects of years of disease after surgery. In my case, often the opinions and recommendations of physicians after surgery, were diametrically opposed to each other in this regard, and the treatment implemented often proved to be even harmful. However, to the greatest extent, I received help from medical rehabilitators and osteopaths.



Physicians and medical sources mention that Eagle Syndrome is a very rare disease. The same sources quote “the prevalence of elongated styloid processes is 4% of the population, and in 4% of them pain and disease symptoms have been observed.” Let’s count – this means that for a city the size of New York (population 8.8 million), the case will affect 14,080 people (8.8 million x 0.04 x 0.04). For the US population (337 million), this gives 539,200 potential cases during the life of one generation (!) (337 million x 0.04 x 0.04). Modern studies identify these rates as high as 1.4-30% and 4-10% respectively. The divergence of estimates in public medical publications is very wide and difficult for review. Interesting !? => The prevalence of styloid process elongation or stylohyoid ligament mineralization in imaging studies has been reported to be between 19.4% to 52.1% in the general population and in up to 76% of patients with temporomandibular disorder. However, the incidence of Eagle syndrome in the general population is underestimated since only 6% of those with an elongated styloid process have symptoms (source: PubMed).

Somewhere these people are suffering and being treated without proper diagnosis /from the experience of patients, they were most often “treated” for temporomandibular disorder, neuralgia, migraines and headache, spinal, atypical facial pain, reflux, tonsillectomy/. Now calculate what the magnitude of diseases will be for the population of the entire globe (8 billion people x 0.04 x 0.04)? Math doesn’t lie. Details can be found => here.


Interesting fact – after the surgery, when the post-operative scars of one of the patients were still visible – a woman (optician salesman) accosted and said: you had surgery on styloid processes? How do you know? – asked the patient. I had it on…veterinary medicine, she replied. The knowledge of the subject, a graduate of the Academy of Agriculture currently running an optical store, was greater than that of a medical graduate.



Note: The following symptoms may or may not occur (!) From my observations, they affect, in varying severity, up to about 40-50% of patients and occur most often in advanced stages of the disease. They are so uncharacteristic that even most patients only begin to put things together over time. Only someone who has experienced them personally is actually familiar with them. Such symptoms may include:



- a feeling of anxiety and tension in the pectoral girdle, pressure in lungs, heart pain (vagus nerve) /EEG and blood pressure measurement are usually normal/.


- intestinal and visceral disorders (vagus nerve) /ultrasound, gastroscopy, etc. usually without concerns/


- neck and occipital pain /feeling of a peg in the neck/ (very common)


- feeling of spreading or crushing of the face


- shoulder and arm pain, with time even inability to hold things e.g. phone, kettle etc. (often)


- hand stiffness, pain in the wrist(s) /not to be confused with carpal tunnel syndrome/


- wandering pains and parasthesias in different body parts, feeling of tingling and numbness


- twisting pains and currents to the lower extremities (can get worse when lying down and sitting)


- inability to lay the head on a pillow (a children’s pillow may be helpful)


- hyperreactivity/hypersensitivity to light, sun, smells and sudden sounds


- hypersensitivity of the scalp, “hair pain” on the head, pain from the pressure of a antiviral mask


- recurrent redness and skin lesions (neck, neckline), sometimes swelling


- visual disturbances, dizziness, fainting, brain fog (can get worse when bending down)


- sparks and flashes in the eye, stinging in the orbital area /ophthalmologist without objections/


- crackling and “throbbing,” a feeling of fullness, overflowing in the ear and under the ear (may increase when lying down)


- chills and a feeling of cold and sudden sweating /vagus nerve, vegetative system/ (very rare)


- problems with breathing, taking a breath (rare)


- exacerbation of symptoms after drinking irritating drinks, e.g. hot coffee, cold beer


- exacerbation of symptoms after even minor physical activity e.g. vacuuming, window cleaning etc.




Keep in mind that the above symptoms can also be a symptom of many other conditions.


There is a known case of complications as a result of Eagle Syndrome and damage to the cranial nerves in the form of severe sensory polyneuropathy of the patient, with the full spectrum of resulting body disorders, including many listed above.

Conclusion and complications



The messenger of bad news is an ungrateful role. I believe that it is better to raise awareness than to color the reality. However, for most patients, the day of diagnosis, was a “joyous” day, that finally, often after many years, the cause of ailments was identified.


Eagle Syndrome – can be a very dangerous, severe and unpredictable disease. Although it generally appears at first with severe pain, as a result of long undiagnosed, it can cause many health complications (actually, only a few physicians were able to factually explain it). The disease at an advanced stage can contribute to serious health consequences including: arterial dissection, carotidynia, ischemic stroke, aneurysm /details discussed => here/, tachycardia, cardiac disorders /vagus nerve/, circulatory and respiratory disorders, narrowing of internal veins, cranial nerve damage, Bell’s palsy, sensitization of the nervous system, damage to the cervical spine at the C1-C2 level and the dura (fortunately, few cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage are known), peripheral and centripetal sensitization and disorders of the centrifugal (central) nervous system, sensorimotor disorders, hyoid bone syndrome, Barre-Lieou syndrome, the formation of severe hypersensitivity (allodynia, hyperalgesia, facial sensory disorders, facial sympathetic dystrophy, sensory hypersensitivity). Some medical sources indicate that persistent ischemia caused by compression of styloid processes, can also cause: multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, deafness, memory loss, vision loss.           



The decision to undergo surgery is not an easy one. Several people (in moderate condition), due to possible complications, have now decided not to have surgery. There are many people who carry a huge “fang” in their cheek, and have no symptoms or complaints – it all depends on the location of styloid processes. Fortunately, there are more and more maxillofacial surgeons or otolaryngologists who decide /mostly occasionally/ to undertake this difficult procedure. Before the operation, the physician should rule out other causes of the ailment.



The first known operation to reduce styloid processes was performed by Dr. Josef Weinlechner in 1872 => and today high hopes are placed on microsurgery.




The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the better the chance of recovery. Having surgery does not necessarily mean automatic recovery and well-being. Surgery is only the removal of disease cause, not its often long-standing effects and consequences. It all depends on the extent of “damage” the disease has done to the body’s structures, especially the nerves. I have met patients for whom it took 10-15 years to diagnose the disease, during which they were excluded from life and close to suicide. Medical sources indicate (depending on the group studied) that only 65-80% of patients show improvement in health after surgery. One German surgeon specializing in the disease determines the recovery chances after surgery at 60:40 /this does not mean that in other cases the surgery was not needed, and many were saved from even greater ailments and complications/. According to my private statistics (a statistical group of about 40 patients), 10-15% of patients feel healthy soon after the surgery, and only about 50% of patients recover in the following months. Unfortunately, often the disease, to varying degrees, remains present for longer or even for life.


If the disease is not diagnosed for a long time, it can result in the fact that even after surgery is performed and the cause of ailment is eliminated, the damage of the disease can be severe enough to prevent recovery. Damage to cranial nerves (e.g., nerve fibrosis, persistent nerve ischemia) – can cause persistent even after surgery: persistent pain, hypersensitivity (allodynia, hyperesthesia) of a fragment or even the entire body, disorders of peripheral nervous system, musculoskeletal system, craniosacral system, disorders of the patient’s autonomic vegetative and sympathetic nervous system, sensorimotor disorders and many others – sometimes preventing normal functioning. Chronic pain, the continuous transmission of nerve signals to other nerve cells and from there to muscle cells, leads to persistent muscle tension, which can lead to muscle spasms and persistent pain in various body parts.

Patients’ struggles and histories



If you have Eagle Syndrome – you are not alone. Artists, singers, celebrities, and paradoxically physicians themselves including dentists, and most of all ordinary people suffer from it. Hundreds of people around the world (many of whom I’ve met personally) are currently suffering from it, and probably several times more undiagnosed wandering from physician to physician. Since the MRI showed nothing, the radiologist didn’t notice anything, CBC is normal – physicians mocking patients and sending them to a psychiatrist is not unusual in this situation. Isn’t it strange that a person with a heart attack or stroke immediately ends up in the hospital, and in the case of styloid processes compression on the arteries and cranial nerves, suffers from huge pain then the physician advises him to relax and de-stress? – most patients have unfortunately experienced something like this and can confirm it. However, the look on the face of these physicians when you have a diagnosed disease is priceless.



You yourself, after a few months of disease, will have more knowledge than your attending physician (actually, there are hardly any). Each person case is unique, and what is right for one may not be right for others.


NBC television intends to make a movie about the disease, largely a guide for physicians around the world. The good news – dentists have recently begun further training in this field. Although they learn it in their studies, they generally fail to apply this knowledge in practice.


A nice surprise from the Colgate  (please correct your math, because it hurts my teeth).

3D-CT diagnostics - Eagle Syndrome - styloid process syndrome /stylalgia/ (angio-CT)


elongated styloid process
elongated styloid processes  / ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament

Eagle Syndrome is often confused by physicians with temporomandibular joint disorders – and all it usually takes is a good look at the patient’s X-ray panoramic radiograph. What AI (Artificial Intelligence) thinks about it can be found here


On the image, the styloid processes of normal length.

PubMed /PMC23207864/ !?

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You can find more useful INFORMATION and selected patient cases below. 

Toothache, temporomandibular joint pain, sore throat, neuralgia or maybe
Eagle Syndrome

This website was created to help all those who have often struggled with unrecognized huge pain and discomfort in the craniofacial and neck areas for many months or perhaps years. If you have such unrecognized and undiagnosed symptoms or someone close to you or an acquaintance has been struggling with unrecognized pains in the jaw, teeth, ear, craniofacial, neck and throat etc. for a long time, let them know. You can write to me. As one physiotherapist said – you don’t have to be a roadsman or forester to see a tree on the road. However, keep in mind that not every elongated styloid processes means a disease (!) and it is very important to make a correct clinical diagnosis with a specialist physician (easy to say, harder to do). In this regard, it is worth ruling out, among others, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, TMJ/TMD, Craniocervical instability (CCI), Ramsay Hunt syndrome, Ernest syndrome, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), BMS - burning mouth syndrome, Globus pharyngis (globus hystericus), Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, Pterygoid Hamulus syndrome (1) (2), Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, etc.

Stylohyoid ligament is attached to the styloid processes, on which also hangs your hyoid bone


type I (Uninterrupted integrity of styloid process (>30mm))

type II (Styloid process joined to the mineralized stylomandibular or stylohyoid ligament by a single pseudoarticulation)

type III (segmented styloid process containing multiple pseudo articulations)

type IV (elongation of styloid process due to distant ossification)

Types: elongated styloid processes / ossified (mineralized) stylohyoid ligament:

Type IV – the most difficult to diagnose, virtually unknown to physicians

                            a)                                                                                                                      b)


Visible even to a layperson who is not a physician, the worsening proliferation of the condition /overgrowth of the styloid processes extending all the way to the angles of jaws/ in image (b) compared to the condition in image (a) /some patients have heard from a physician in such a situation that it is…spine/ A careful measurement of the styloid processes on CT showed that they had grown by about 1 cm in length in 2 years.


No physician on the aforementioned X-ray pointed out the detail above, although they have special test questions in this area in their studies or elsewhere. Radiological examples of the condition on X-ray panoramic radiograph can be found => here


Computed tomography (CT) allows for the evaluation of length and angulation of the styloid process. A 3D-CT is considered the gold standard of radiological diagnosis and provides the best supplement to a plain X-ray. CT angiography is recommended in stylocarotid syndrome to assess blood flow dynamics. Software to convert plain CT to 3D CT (e.g. or and


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to available medical knowledge, is not considered an appropriate test for Eagle Syndrome.

Knowledge of vagus nerve disorders among neurologists in practice is nil.


Physiotherapists and osteopaths have much more knowledge. You can find a detailed description of vagus nerve disorders, among others => here and here

Eagle Syndrome can cause, among others, vagus nerve disorders.


There is a known case of cardiac arrest and death of a man caused by compression of the vagus nerve by styloid processes. 


Unusual symptoms of Eagle Syndrome that you won’t read about from textbook and medical sources

Styloid processes on CBCT scan – before and after surgery of one patient diagnosed thanks to information on this website

Physicians’ awareness of the complications that occur as a result of Eagle Syndrome disease is negligible. Qualified physiotherapists and medical rehabilitation specialists are definitely more knowledgeable on the subject. After surgery, rehabilitation can be useful. Everyone needs to find his or her individual limit and range from which rehabilitation helps rather than harms – there is no universal rule of rehabilitation.


Sometimes, despite successful surgery, the disease can relapse months later when least expected. Cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, cortex, chronic and persistent pain have their own “memory” and incalculable logic. Adhesions and surgical scars can further aggravate the discomfort. In all such cases, the psychiatrist has not helped anyone, at most ruling out a psychological basis for the ailment.


What is the treatment?


Most often surgery is needed, i.e. styloid processes reduction (styloidectomy). You can find relevant videos on YouTube – just type => “eagle syndrome surgery”


Surgery, depending on the disease stage and progression, can be performed from an internal approach (in the patient’s mouth) or from an external approach (through the neck layers). Surgery from an external access is considered more effective, but more invasive. You should not worry about scars after neck surgery – although it looks uninteresting immediately after the operation, in a year or two you will not even notice them. Surgery with internal approach – usually requires removal of the tonsils. Styloidectomy with an intraoral approach is considered low effective. Styloid processes surgeries are higher-risk surgeries /directly adjacent to cranial nerves and arteries/. As a well-known professor of neurosurgery said, Eagle operations are more risky than open brain surgery.


In the case of bilateral Eagle Syndrome, there is a debate on whether to operate on both sides of the patient simultaneously or through two separate surgical procedures. This topic is controversial and largely depends on the personal approach of the surgeon. Typically, the common surgical practice involves conducting two separate surgeries with a gap of around twelve weeks or more between them. However, some of the top surgeons, particularly in the USA, known for their exceptional treatment outcomes and chances of recovery, are capable of successfully performing styloidectomy on both styloid processes in a single operation. In such cases, it is crucial to adapt to and respect the surgeon's approach.



The disease is also discussed in textbooks and materials for physicians, especially dentists and neurologists, as well as publicly available publications. Useful links can be found below.




Which physician should you go to?


The disease should be diagnosed by a dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, dental rehabilitation specialist, neurologist, or ENT specialist. In fact, knowledge and awareness of Eagle disease among physicians, especially dentists and neurologists, is…nil.


Based on our own experience with the disease and dozens of other patients, we know that most physicians have no idea about the condition. At best, they will suggest temporomandibular joint dysfunction or neuralgia. If you are diagnosed with Eagle Syndrome disease, you must be prepared that the treating physician you will be…yourself with the support of Dr. Google. I also met an example of physicians who even once saw and performed surgery for this condition, they did not bother to recognize and confirm the disease in other patients (simple indolence and sloppiness of the physician). Also, many other patients diagnosed with the disease, often in serious condition, were completely ignored and disregarded in the maxillofacial surgery or otolaryngology departments in their local area. Record-breakers have finally found understanding and a willingness to help the suffering patient in hospital wards even hundreds of kilometers from home. Recently at the Medical University I observed an ENT class for medical students in which 60%-70% of future physicians were playing with…smartphones.


How to diagnose the disease?


Diagnosis of the disease, in addition to clinical history is based on:


a) palpation examination by a physician (which I’m sure no physician has done in your case?) – the physician should insert 2 fingers /with a rubber glove/ in a V-shape under your tongue where the tonsil beds are located and feel the styloid processes – it may hurt. It may also be useful to perform an anesthetic diagnostic test to anesthetize the tonsil bearing area.


b) X-ray panoramic radiograph


c) CBCT scan / CT scan (not to be confused with a CBCT at the dentist) – often the condition can also be seen on a CT scan of the sinuses, but no one generally notices it (!) The physician may also recommend an angio-CT of the neck before surgery.



What diagnostic scan would show Eagles ? => useful illustration graphics.



Below is an example of the developing Eagle Syndrome disease visible on an X-ray fragment panoramic radiograph of one of the patients:

Dr Watt Weems Eagle (1898-1980)


His publications from 1937 to 1958 can be found => here

Eagle disease in modern times was first described and classified in 1937 by American physician, Watt Weems Eagle (Duke University). Dr Watt W. Eagle, for whom Eagle syndrome is named. Dr. Eagle, with the help of an X-ray made 100 years ago, was able to see a condition that most of today’s specialists have a problem with.




Animation – the styloid processes relative to the skull and spine /disorder can cause, among others, complaints of the cervical spine including ischemia of the dura mater/. Possible associated instability of the cervical spine is presented, among others => here.  Other useful discussion can be found => here   



Below, a disease model (diagram) of Eagle Syndrome – hypertrophy of the styloid processes.

Possible symptoms of Eagle Syndrome in an academic summary.

In fact, every sick person can add a long list of their ailments.

The styloid process has almost every person. It is assumed that the normal length is max. 2.5 – 3 cm. There are known cases when it has grown to 8.5 cm (it’s like wearing a nail under the ear growing towards the neck and spine). Not only the length is significant, but also the angle of inclination from the base of the skull and the position relative to the cervical vessels and cranial nerves. Can a normal-length styloid process cause symptoms? It is extremely rare! This => patient can say something about it.

Eagle Syndrome is a group of clinical symptoms that result from excessive elongation (hypertrophy) and calcification of the styloid process of temporal bone and/or calcification of ligaments that attach to the styloid process, i.e., the stylomandibular and stylohyoid ligaments. Anteriorly and laterally from the styloid process runs the external carotid artery (ECA), while posteriorly from it are the internal carotid artery (ICA), internal jugular vein (IJV), the cervical part of the sympathetic trunk and cranial nerves V, VII and IX-XII  /useful illustration graphics/.


Causes of Eagle Syndrome – the etiopathogenesis of Eagle Syndrome has not been fully explained. It is suspected that the cause of this disease may be a disruption of the body’s calcium-phosphate balance or a “shedding” of stem cells, for example, after previous surgical procedures or injuries/trauma and chronic inflammation of the body /1) Theory of reactive hyperplasia – trauma can cause ossification at the end of styloid process down the length of the styloid ligament; since the styloid ligament contains remnant of its connective tissue and fibrocartilaginous origins, the potential for ossification remains. 2) Theory of reactive metaplasia – an abnormal posttraumatic healing response initiates the calcification of stylohyoid ligament/. Reduced blood flow, metabolic disorders in the tissue promote tendon calcification.  Dr. Eagle suspected a relationship between the disease and symptoms and a tonsillectomy – later studies have not confirmed this relationship (removing the tonsils without removing the styloids may exacerbate the symptoms of an existing condition in some people).  Another idea is that cartilaginous embryonic tissue of the 2nd gill arch (Reichert cartilage) remains in the ligament, which has the ability to ossify later (Reichert cartilage, second pharyngeal arch cartilage: the cartilage in the mesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch in the embryo from which the stapes, styloid process, lesser horn and upper part of the body of the hyoid bone; its proximal end gives rise to the stylohyoid ligament) /learn more/. Genetics may play a critical role in the development of this disease, but this is not confirmed.  Still another theory is that when the tensions occurring at the point of attachment of muscles and ligaments to the styloid process are too high, an inflammatory process can occur at the level of the periosteum of styloid process, as a result of which calcium salts begin to be deposited. If the excessive tension occurs for a long time, the calcium layers overlap, the process of calcification and elongation of the styloid process progresses. Also, today’s lifestyle, prolonged sitting in front of a monitor or smartphone, is not conducive to proper head and neck motility.  It is suspected that in some people, the condition may be related to a connective tissue disorder – Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). This anatomical dissimilarity, can affect people of different ages, both men and women (noticeable predominance of women). Based on my own observation /statistical group of 50 patients/, half had unilateral symptoms, while the rest had bilateral symptoms (50:50). Some academic sources indicate that the disease, due to calcification of muscle attachments adjacent to the styloid process, mainly affects the elderly. Many patients’ medical histories show that this is by no means the rule, and that the disease affects people in the range of 20 to 70 years old with a predominance of the 30-55 age group (there is a known case of 16-year-olds about whom you will read in the lower section of our website +  one of the youngest reported cases of a 14-year-old child). There are known (very rare) cases when the disease and styloid processes were activated as a result of - a traffic accident, - falling down the stairs  or - head and neck rehabilitation.  An attempt to scientifically explain the cause of this condition is described => here (use Google translate).

For quite some time now, you feel like your tooth hurts more and more? Maybe even several at the same time, especially at the extremities of your jaw – teeth #8,7,6? Do you have pain on one or maybe both sides? Do you have pain in your cheek and ear? Over time, pain takes over other areas of the face, head, neck and throat? Do you go to a dentist who doesn’t notice anything? An X-ray panoramic radiograph seems OK, too. Feel like reaming another tooth or even removing it? Your wisdom / molar teeth have long since been removed and the pain persists and even increases, and your dentist is helpless.


Meanwhile, the neurologist finds neuralgia, but is unable to identify the cause – is he stuffing you with the same medications (psychotropics) as epilepsy patients?

You have done virtually all examinations to find out the cause of your ailment: sinuses, tonsils, salivary glands, thyroid, cysts, Lyme disease, cancer test, MS, treated temporomandibular joints, etc. and nothing is explained? On an MRI scan of your neck, head (MR) and a CT scan of your sinuses – the radiologist didn’t find anything either! Physicians now just start telling you about somatic pains, imaginary pains, migraines and others, e.g. coming from the spine, or refer you to a psychiatrist?

Check this one more (!) – it may be a disease that is called Eagle Syndrome /stylalgia/ (styloid process syndrome), i.e. bilateral or unilateral hypertrophy and very painful compression of the styloid processes, e.g. on the angles of jaw, cranial nerves and carotid and maxillary arteries, along with its other symptoms and complications.

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All about Eagle Syndrome

The above material is based on the author’s own disease experience and that of dozens of other patients in Europe and several hundred in the United States and around the world.


Disclaimer – the content on this website is not a medical recommendation and does not suggest treatment. This website is provided for general information purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. Any information contained on the site is not intended to be a substitute for individual medical advice from a physician, is not a substitute for medical consultation, and does not constitute a recommendation of any specific course of treatment. None of the information contained on the site is intended to diagnose, treat any patient or otherwise be used or treated as medical advice, medical opinion or medical practice. No one here can actually make a diagnosis or tell you what your treatment options “should” be. What is right for some is not necessarily right for others. We are only sharing our individual experiences and information. The information presented cannot be used as a basis for not taking any medication or therapy recommended by a physician. Readers should verify any information they take from here with the experience of a qualified physician. The owners and moderators of the site are not legally responsible for the information provided using this website.


Here’s a list and patient reviews of physicians in different countries around the world. This list is not a recommendation! Some of these physicians have helped others, does not mean they will be able to help the rest. You should only use your own judgment on which physician to use.



                                                => Findexpert/Eagle_syndrome


                                                => Expert doctors on Eagle Syndrome across US


                                                => Expert doctors on Eagle Syndrome outside US


                                                => The best ES surgeons: America / Europe / Australia



                                                           (for more details please contact us!)






Keep in mind that not all surgeons perform surgery, and if they do – it does not mean that they will undertake surgery for every case. You can find opinions about individual physicians in the support groups listed in the section below.

Elongated styloid process dentist X-ray
All you need to know about Eagle Syndrome / styloid process
styloid process  Eagle Syndrom